NOTES FOR SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, AND GASES
A solid has a definite shape and definite volume.
The particles of a solid are packed very closely together and are tightly fixed in one position.
Crystalline Solids-A solid made of crystals created by particles that repeat in a regular pattern. This solid melts at a distinct temperature.
Amorphous solids- particles of this solid are not arranged in regular pattern.
This solid does not melt at distinct temperature and instead might become softer or change into other substances.
Liquid- has definite volume, but has no shape of its own.
The particles in a liquid move around each other freely and this allows a liquid to flow from place to place.
Fluid - means a substance that flows.
Properties of liquids:
Surface Tension- an inward force, or pull, among the molecules in a liquid that brings the molecules on surface closer together.
Viscosity- a liquid’s resistance to flowing. Viscosity depends on the size and shape of the liquid’s particles and the attraction between the particles.
High viscosity- flow slowly
Low viscosity- flow quickly
Gases have neither definite shape nor a definite volume.
Gas will spread and move in all directions.
Things to know when working with gas:
- Volume-The volume of a gas is the same as the container it is compressed into, when the gas is released it expands.
- Temperature- a measure of the average energy of random motion of the particle of matter. (remember that particles vibrate in place that make up all things). The faster the particles are moving the greater the energy and the higher the temperature.
- Pressure- PRESSURE=FORCE DIVIDED BY AREA. The force of the gas outward push divided by the area of the walls of the container. The gases particles collide with each and the container’s walls (remember gas spreads and moves in all directions).
Changes of State
Melting- Change in state from a solid to a liquid.
Melting Point- Specific temperature at which a solid melts. Scientists compare melting points to identify an unknown material. Changes of Form: At a solid’s melting point its particles vibrate so fast (from increase in thermal energy) that the particles break free from their fixed positions
Melting point of pure water is is O degrees celsius
Freezing- Change in state from a liquid to solid.
Freezing Point- The liquids particles are moving so slowly that begin to take on fixed positions. When liquids become cooler and colder the particles lose energy and move slower. Scientists compare melting points to identify an unknown material.
Freezing point of water is O degrees celsius (same as its melting point).
Vaporization- Change in state from liquid to gas. Energy is gained.
**Evaporation- Vaporization that takes place only on the surface of a liquid. Energy is gained.
Boiling- Vaporization that takes place both below and at the surface of a liquid.
Boiling Point- Temperature at which a liquid boils. This is also temperature at which a liquid turns to gas
Condensation- Change in state from a gas to a liquid. Particles’ energy decreases.
**Sublimation- Particles of a solid do not pass through liquid state as they form a gas. Surface particles of a solid gain enough energy that they form a gas.
Review term: Volume is defined as the amount of space matter occupies.
Constant - remains the same.